Friday, June 23, 2017

Why Judaism is reverting to the Middle East


When the 12th century rabbi Benjamin of Tudela wrote The Book of Travels, over 80 percent of Jews lived in the Mediterranean and the Middle East.  Judaism's sojourn in Europe will prove to be only a twinkling of an eye in the grand sweep of history, argues Ben Judah in the Jewish Chronicle.

Ben Judah: in Judaism what was will be
 
Reading The Book of Travels one is left with one conclusion. Sephardic and Mizrahi Judaism, rather than a curio, is in the greatest sweep of Jewish history the mainstream. Ashkenazi Judaism was the flickering. Next to non-existent in the early middle ages, ballooning suddenly, only to almost vanish from Europe in less than five centuries.

None were more aware of this than the Rabbis, when the 15th century Rabbi Mosses Isserles ruled his commentary on the Shulhan Arukh he was enshrining in Krakow specific distinct customs and traditions, what he saw as a branch, not the trunk of Judaism. These rulings – as if for an offshoot – came to define the Ashkenazi rite.

Piecing through texts and cemeteries, historians have estimated the historical Jewish population. As Benjamin travelled in the 12th century over 80 percent of Jews lived in Mediterranean and the Middle East – scholars estimate less than 12 percent were living in Europe. Until the 16th century, after the expulsion from Spain, the majority of Jews lived in Islamic lands – they were Mizrahi or Sephardi.

The history we know only too well meant the centuries of a Judaism centered in Europe are historically brief. In 1880 nearly 90 per cent of Jews were Europeans. In 1939 about 57 per cent were. Come 1960, still, some 27 per cent of Jews lived in Europe. Today barely 10 per cent of Jews are European. Jews in Europe have fallen from 2m in 1991 to less than 1.4m today.

We remember why European Judaism collapsed. But why did it boom? Demographic historians explain that Europe entered “a demographic transition” centuries before the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The very basics of sanitation came to the shtetl centuries earlier: clumsy plumbing, rudimentary medicine and basic sanitation – allowed the Ashkenazi mortality rate to fall whilst the fertility rate stayed high.

Historically this lucky plumbing was only to be a flash in the pan. Judaism is now slowly returning to what it always was: a primarily Middle Eastern phenomenon that Benjamin would have recognized better than the shtetl. Today roughly 45 per cent of the world’s Jews in Israel (which has overtaken the United States, where some 40 per cent live). With the Israeli Jewish population booming, with an average of three children per family, and the US Jewish population ageing and declining the majority of the world’s Jews will again be Middle Eastern by 2050.

In Judaism, what was will be, and Europe was but a twinkling of an eye.

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Thursday, June 22, 2017

'Mizrahi' is an artificial construct of the 1970s (updated)

In response to Norman Berdichevsky's attempt to clarify the confusion about the difference between Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, Point of No Return commenter Sylvia puts forward her explanation:
I'll try to address that question while at the same time explain how we call ourselves as well as show that there is much in common between Asians and Sephardim.
Family of Iraqi Jews. Edot Ha'Mizrah?

ASHKENAZIM Jews from Germany (Ashkenaz) or whose religious centers were in Germany. Also known as Jews of the North in the Middle ages.

EDOT HAMIZRAH (The communities of the East) Jews of the Middle East and the areas formerly dependent of the Babylonian Geonate as religious center before that center moved to North Africa (Kairouan). This includes communities of the Middle East and Asia as far East as the Indus as far North as Samarkand including Egypt, Lebanon Iraq, Iran, etc. It is in the plural because they lived among different peoples with different languages, laws and customs. Not all knew Judeo-Arabic which has become by the 8th century the language of communication of the Gaon and many go by different names.

HA'EADAH HA MA'ARAVIT (The Maghreban community or Western Community) of North Africa including Morocco Algeria Tunisia and Western Libya.
It is in the singular because they lived among one single people (the Berbers) who dwelt from Morocco to Egypt and ruled in parts of Spain for a while. Yet the religious rulings came from Babylonia just like for all the other communities of the East, people some of the youth went to study in those academies (for example Dunash Ibn Labrat, born in Fez) until the center of learning passed to Kairouan(today Tunisia) and from there to Fez with the Rif (Rabbi isaac El Fassi) then to Spain where the Rif founded the Academy of Lucena (where Maimonides fathers has studied)

SEPHARAD From Hesperia (the West), as the Romans used to call Spain. That is where the two currents of Sephardi religious philosophy-the mystic and the rational met and developed. They studied the Babylonian Talmud and worshipped in Babylonian synagogues (The synagogue institution was founded by the leadership in Babylon).

MIZRAHIM (ORIENTALS). This is an artificial construct that was imposed by a Knesset education committee in the mid 1970s, without our consent and without us being consulted, without even our knowledge. It was done mostly for campaign purposes, but there were many other reasons. Contrary to what the author of the article believes, we North African Jews have never accepted the name Mizrahi, which is nothing more than an unrelated geographic designation and without a history or heritage.

HOW DID IT HAPPEN?
The term "Mizrahi heritage", purposedly in the singular yet meant to include the heritage of the various Jewish communities of the East, North Africa and the dispersed Sephardim, was an artificial construct imposed on March 21, 1976 by the Culture and Education Committee of the 8th Knesset.

What was billed as a Seminar or Study day on Jews from Muslim countries following calls for cultural pluralism turned out to be an ambush.

Despite fierce opposition to the absurd wording on the part of academics, the committee stood its ground and the formula passed as worded and academic Israel obeyed. The subtitle of the journal Peamim of the Ben Zvi Institute, for example was "Studies in the Cultural Heritage of Oriental Jewry".

Yet historians were in a bind:how does one teach and write about the heritage without mentioning the heirs?
There was much criticism from abroad as well and there were those who compared the new orders to the institution of Black Studies in the United States. All this turmoil was confined to the academic community and took place over the head of the general population.

Historian Shaul Shaked thus expressed the complexity of the dilemma:
"Even if we ignore the public dimension of the issue as well as the external pressure on the universities and research institutes to give voice to the human cultural and Jewish equality of the "Oriental" half of the Israeli people, introspective debate is still necessary."

The late Historian Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson was less forgiving:
"The topic presented to us today, as it is worded, is based on the assumption that the Jews of the East had a common background. This is not true. This was not true in the past, this is not true in the present.[...]
Anyone speaking of "Oriental Jewish Heritage" in the singular as of one concrete bloc is committing an injustice toward the many heritages and their living differences, and by setting them in the splint of something artificial, prevents them from contributing all they can contribute to their sons and to the global national culture.

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

The Jews who are neither Ashkenazi nor Sephardi

 There is still much confusion about the difference between Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews. Norman Berdichevsky provides some useful definitions in Heritage Florida Jewish News. (With thanks: Michelle)

Any serious student of Jewish history and tradition knows that the only authentic Sephardim are the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain and Portugal. They went on to settle in Western Europe including England, Holland, Denmark, North Western Germany, colonial America, the Caribbean and Brazil as well as in lands dominated by Islam, throughout North Africa, the Ottoman Empire, the Balkans and across the Levant. There are thus many Sephardi Jews who have always lived in Europe and many Jewish communities around the world composed of both Sephardim and Ashkenazim, who lived together and intermarried, notably in Italy, Egypt, Syria and Bulgaria, where later Ashkenazi immigrants arrived and were welcome by Sephardi residents. This has also been true in the Caribbean, South America and modern Israel.

 Kurdish Jews being airlifted to Israel

Just as America's Afro-American population has gone through several self-designations indicating a search for their authentic identity ranging from Black to Colored to Negro and then Afro-American and for some, back to Black (originally a term of disparagement used by whites), Israel's Jews of Afro-Asian origin have shifted from Sephardi to Mizrachi (Oriental). For religious purposes, "Sephardi" describes the nusach ("litugical tradition") used by most non-Ashkenazi Jews in the Siddur (prayer book).

In reality, there are also many Jews who are neither Ashkenazi nor Sephardi. These include the Jews of Ethiopia, Egypt, India, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, the Caucasus region (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Armenia), all of whom are recognized as being of Afro-Asian origin yet have nothing to do with the original Sephardim. They are the descendants of the Jews who fled into exile following the Assyrian, Babylonian and Roman conquests of ancient Israel. No doubt, they were later joined by numerous converts who were attracted to the high moral and ethical principles that distinguished Judaism in ancient times from pagan and polytheistic religions.

There is indeed a serious social and geo-cultural cleavage in Israel's diverse Jewish population groups, precisely because all the four divisions overlap to a considerable degree. Most of the Jews from Africa and Asia arrived in Israel after 1948 and being relative newcomers had to adjust to difficult conditions. Most of them arrived destitute and unlike many of the Ashkenazim never received any reparations for their confiscated property.

They still tend to have larger families and as a rule are much more religiously observant than the Ashkenazim who established the secular norms and institutions of the Zionist movement and later of the State of Israel. It is only human nature that the new arrivals from Asia and Africa resented the more established veteran European settlers and those new immigrants from Europe who immediately found more personal connections and sympathy with the veteran Ashkenazi settlers through a common knowledge of Yiddish and shared political and social backgrounds.

A list of new army recruits will probably reveal names like de Leon, Toledano, Castro, Franco, Mizrahi, Dayan, Gabbai, Abulafia, Kimhi, Shar'abi, Sassoon, Azulay, Kadouri, Marziano, Ohana, Aflalo and Hasson, as often or more than Schwartz, Goldberg, Wolf, Guttmann, Rabinowitz, Berdichevsky, Kaplan or Finkelstein. So how then can they then be one people? They are, because history, traditions and their faith (whether they are orthodox observant or secular) have instilled in them the idea of sharing a common peoplehood.

Read article in full

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

1967: how Spain helped free Jews in Egypt

On 21 June 1967, with the Arab world still smarting from their stunning defeat in the Six Day War, the Spanish government undertook a secret operation to free hundreds of Jews from Egyptian prisons.  The Forward tells this hitherto untold story:

At the outbreak of the Six Day War, Egypt arrested hundreds of Jews – “at least one from each family, in order to frighten the whole minority population,” Angel Sagaz, the Spanish Ambassador to Egypt, would later write. Within a week, as many as 800 Egyptian Jews (the figure usually quoted is 400 - ed) — a full 20% of Egypt’s Jewish population — had been rounded up. Many were transferred to the Abu-Zaabal prison, a notoriously brutal military facility outside of Cairo. The prisoners were attacked by an angry Egyptian mob, then beaten by military guards.


 Egyptian Jews when times were good
With Israel still reeling from the war and U.S.-Egypt relations at a nadir, Franco’s Spain stepped in. The Iberian country was uniquely positioned to negotiate with President Gamal Abdel Nasser; Spain had not recognized the State of Israel, and it had good relations with many Arab countries.
Sagaz (who would go on to become the Spanish Ambassador to the United States) led the charge, petitioning the police and even President Nasser himself to release the Jewish prisoners. In meetings with the Egyptian Interior Ministry, he emphasized that Spain had an obligation to protect the descendants of the Sephardic Jews that had been expelled. Sagaz’s argument relied upon a 1924 decree by deposed dictator Primo de Rivera that granted Spanish citizenship to all Sephardic Jews (a similar argument was used during the Holocaust by Angel Sanz-Briz, who saved thousands of Hungarian Jews by issuing them Spanish passports). If the Egyptian police had no objection to their departure, Sagaz said, Spain would be willing to offer documents and plane tickets to the country’s Jewish population.
Between 1967 and 1970, 615 families – more than 1,500 Jews – fled Egypt with the help of Sagaz and the Spanish government.

The story has gone largely untold for years, partly because Egypt made the prisoners’ silence a condition of their release. 

On June 21, 1967, with the Arab world still smarting from their stunning defeat in the Six Day War, the Spanish government undertook a secret operation to free hundreds of Jews from Egyptian prisons.
At the outbreak of the Six Day War, Egypt arrested hundreds of Jews – “at least one from each family, in order to frighten the whole minority population,” Angel Sagaz, the Spanish Ambassador to Egypt, would later write. Within a week, as many as 800 Egyptian Jews — a full 20% of Egypt’s Jewish population — had been rounded up. Many were transferred to the Abu-Zaabal prison, a notoriously brutal military facility outside of Cairo. The prisoners were attacked by an angry Egyptian mob, then beaten by military guards.
With Israel still reeling from the war and U.S.-Egypt relations at a nadir, Franco’s Spain stepped in. The Iberian country was uniquely positioned to negotiate with President Gamal Abdel Nasser; Spain had not recognized the State of Israel, and it had good relations with many Arab countries.
Sagaz (who would go on to become the Spanish Ambassador to the United States) led the charge, petitioning the police and even President Nasser himself to release the Jewish prisoners. In meetings with the Egyptian Interior Ministry, he emphasized that Spain had an obligation to protect the descendants of the Sephardic Jews that had been expelled. Sagaz’s argument relied upon a 1924 decree by deposed dictator Primo de Rivera that granted Spanish citizenship to all Sephardic Jews (a similar argument was used during the Holocaust by Angel Sanz-Briz, who saved thousands of Hungarian Jews by issuing them Spanish passports). If the Egyptian police had no objection to their departure, Sagaz said, Spain would be willing to offer documents and plane tickets to the country’s Jewish population.
Between 1967 and 1970, 615 families – more than 1,500 Jews – fled Egypt with the help of Sagaz and the Spanish government.
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The story has gone largely untold for years, partly because Egypt made the prisoners’ silence a condition of their release.
Read more: http://forward.com/culture/374948/how-spain-saved-egypts-jewish-population-after-the-six-day-war/

Monday, June 19, 2017

BBC piece : 'Zionists stole foods from Palestinians'

Travellers to Israel will find it hard to find 'Jewish food', alleges journalist Sarah Treleaven for BBC Travel (article not visible if you are in the UK). That's because the Zionists appropriated 'Palestinian' dishes in order to construct an 'authentic' national narrative! Mizrahim and Sephardim who have been eating these foods for millennia are, not for the first time, invisible in the BBC's world view.

“One of the biggest shocks for many foreign visitors to Israel is the lack of familiar Jewish cuisine. Where are the smoked salmon, bagels and cream cheese at breakfast? What about the delis that define Jewish cuisine from Montreal to Los Angeles? Or the kugel (a casserole made from egg noodles or potato), gefilte fish (an appetizer made from poached fish) and matzoh ball soup served at Jewish tables around the world?

“The early Zionists eagerly adopted Palestinian dishes, such as falafel, hummus, and shawarma, while in recent years Israelis have developed a more diversified palate. Still, ‘Jewish food’ remains scarce. But very few visitors know the reasons behind the dearth of it in Israel: despite the fact that the early settlers were mostly Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe, they forsook traditional Jewish food both because of scarcity but also in deliberate service to the formation of a new national narrative.”

“Early adherents to the Zionist project, committed to creating a Jewish state in the territory now known as Israel, sought to abandon vestiges of their past. Just as the European settlers favoured Hebrew over Yiddish and khakis over frock coats and homburgs, they also purposefully chose to eat indigenous foods over Ashkenazi ones.

“The adoption of indigenous food lent the early European implants an air of authenticity. The production of local ingredients – the things that grew well in the desert and along the Mediterranean coastline, and the many dishes adapted from Arab kitchens – became part of the Zionist narrative.”

Edward Solomon has given Point of No Return permission to quote his rebuttal: 

"This article is replete with out-and-out lies and falsehoods. Based on Sarah Treleaven's limited and blinkered view of Jewish history and cuisine, Israeli food should consist of lokshen, bagels, gefilte fish, matzah ball soup, kugel, chopped liver and cholent.

The rich and varied panoply of Middle Eastern and North African Jewish foods, such as sabikh, tagine, tbit, kubbah, loubiah, kahi, and countless other dishes of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, Ottoman Turkish, Persian, Indian, and Iraqi origins documented by writers such as Linda Dangoor and Claudia Roden, cooked and eaten in Israel, are completely glossed over in the interest of presenting a one-sided, politicised narrative that paints the Zionist Jews as Ashkenazic interlopers who stole Palestinian dishes to claim for their own.

This narrative falls down because (a) the majority of Jews in Israel are Sephardi and Mizrahi, not Ashkenazi, and (b) they did not misappropriate Palestinian foods, but brought with them the many and varied cuisines of their homelands, which are enjoyed today throughout the land of Israel.

This article is misleading and shortsighted in its attempt to distort Jewish history and cuisine to suit a distinctly Leftist, anti-Zionist narrative."

BBC Watch

Sunday, June 18, 2017

Houthis demanding return of Torah hold Jew

 A Yemeni Jew has been in jail and 'tortured' for over a year, accused of helping a Jewish family escape the country. He will not be released, say the authorities, until the old Torah scroll the family took with them is returned to Yemen.

The scroll is said to be 700 years old.

The Houthis in Yemen have refused to release the Jew, Levi, until the family, which is now in Israel, agrees to send the Torah scroll back to Yemen.

Manny Dahari's family was on the last Jewish Agency airlift from Yemen to Israel in March 2016. He says that the Torah scroll has been in his family's possession for generations.  

 "Unfortunately, my family will not release it to them or anyone else. It will remain with my family in Israel," he writes in a Facebook post.

On the family's arrival in Israel, young members were photographed reading from the scroll, watched by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The Houthis claim that the Torah scroll belongs to the Republic of Yemen.

The fifty Jews still in Yemen have proclaimed their desire to stay there, in spite of the war raging in the country. They live in a government compound in the capital Sana'a. Manny Dahari claims that the Houthis, who are in control of the capital, broke into the compound and seized the remaining Torah scrolls, thus 'preventing the Jews from practising their religion freely.'
 

"This is just a continuation of the oppression against Jews in the Middle East," he writes. "Close to one million Jews have been forced out of their homes throughout the Middle East. Yet, the international community continues to ignore these atrocities. They have turned a blind eye to the ethnic cleansing of Middle Eastern Jews.
 

"Why are we different than any other refugees? Why is there a double standard when it comes to Jews? 

"I know there is not much we can do from here, and this is definitely not going to free Levi, but at least this will bring some awareness to the way minorities are treated in Arab countries. It's about time they hold them accountable for their crimes against humanity."

Yemen escape plan failed three times

Friday, June 16, 2017

Photos of the Mufti in Nazi Germany put up for sale

Previously unseen photographs of the Mufti of Jerusalem visiting a camp in Nazi Germany are expected to fetch $30,000 at auction. Haaretz reports (With thanks: Sylvia, Lily):

 One of the six photos shows the Mufti with Nazi officials in 1943: it is suggested that Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani, the Iraqi pro-Nazi Prime minister and Fritz Grobba, the German ambassador to Iraq, are also in the photo.

A new catalog published by the Kedem Auction House contains a valuable historical item: six previously unknown photographs from a visit by the mufti of Jerusalem to Nazi Germany (The Mufti lived in Berlin from 1941 - 45 - ed).

Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini’s connection to Nazi Germany has made headlines several times in recent years thanks to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who used him as an example of Palestinian attitudes toward Israel to bolster his claim that Israel has no Palestinian partner.

Granted, Netanyahu exaggerated when he claimed in 2015 that Husseini had persuaded Hitler to launch the Final Solution, but the storm that erupted over that statement did raise awareness of Husseini’s Nazi ties.

Two months ago, the National Library of Israel made its own contribution to raising awareness of this story when it published a telegram to Husseini from Heinrich Himmler in which the SS chief wished him success in his battle against “the Jewish invaders.”

The six photos that Kedem is now offering for sale show Husseini “during a tour apparently held at a camp” in Nazi Germany circa 1943, the auction house’s website says. The photos, three of which are on the site, show Husseini with several senior Nazi officials in uniform as well as government staffers in civilian dress.

Read article in full

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Unauthorised 1950s tests performed on Yemenite children

The newspaper Israel Hayom reveals previously unseen testimony and photos showing that in early years of the state, not only were Yemenite refugee children who died autopsied without consent, doctors also performed unauthorized tests on live children. The findings need to be seen in the context of an obsession with medical research in the 1950s, lax regulations, and that many children had arrived from Yemen in a poor state of health. (With thanks: Sylvia)

The Knesset Special Committee on the Disappearance of Children from Yemen, the East and the Balkans met Wednesday morning, after Israel Hayom published an exclusive report exposing doctors' testimonies that unauthorized medical tests were performed on children who went missing in the early years of the state and whose fates were unknown to their families. The documents also revealed that children who died were autopsied without the consent of their parents.

 Previously unseen photos revealed by Israel Hayom

Committee members were presented with the protocols of previous government committees of inquiry into the missing children, as well as proof that some of the children died after being subjected to experimental medical treatments. 

Committee Chairwoman MK Nurit Koren (Likud) said at Wednesday's meeting: "In the very place they should have been protected, the children disappeared. Some of the children disappeared and their parents never received a death certificate; they were informed only that their children had died. Although they asked to see the bodies, they got nothing and could not hold funerals. It is increasingly apparent that the bodies of the children were used for research." 

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Iraqi Jews in Israel record their stories

 The oral history project Sephardi Voices is about to launch its Iraqi Voices project, funded by the Iraqi-Jewish businessmen Dennis and Robert Shasha. Article by Eeta Prince Gibson in Haaretz (with thanks to all those who told me about this):

Sitting in her airy, light-filled home outside of Jerusalem, surrounded by a garden and wide views of the Judean Hills, Linda Menuhin says thoughtfully, “I left Iraq more than 40 years ago. But Iraq never left me.”


Menuhin, 67, (above) was recently interviewed for Sephardi Voices, an ongoing project designed to create an audiovisual documentary archive of life stories, photographs and artifacts of Sephardi and Iranian Jews.

Menuhin reveals that throughout her career she had been a radio and television reporter, an intelligence analyst with the Israeli police and a consultant to various ministries. “Since I was born and raised in Iraq, my Arabic was fluent and much of my career was based on that," she says. "But because of my experiences there, I was so hurt I had shut down and couldn’t really think about life there. I had to heal. It took me years to open up.”

It's that opening up that Henry Green, professor of religious studies and executive director of the Sephardi Voices project, seeks to capture. “Jews lived in North Africa, the Middle East and Iran for millennia," says Green, who was recently in Israel to interview and film for the project.

"Most referred to themselves as Arab Jews ( a contentious assertion - ed) and most were well integrated into their societies. But beginning in the 1940s, Jews began to experience discrimination and violence, much of it stirred up by the Zionist enterprise (The Farhud predated the 'Zionist enterprise' - ed). In the years following the establishment of the State of Israel, more than 95 percent of Sephardi Jews were victimized, traumatized and scattered throughout the world. And no one was telling their story.”

Founded in 2009, Sephardi Voices is modeled after Steven Spielberg's Shoah Foundation Institute at the University of Southern California, which has recorded the oral histories of tens of thousands of Holocaust survivors. “My research shows that it takes three generations for a traumatized community to find its voice, gain perspective and really begin to tell their story," Green says. "The Sephardi model has been even more delayed, especially in Israel, because they are a minority within a minority.”

The project builds on "Iraq’s Last Jews,” a collection of stories of “daily life, upheaval and escape from modern Babylon” co-edited by journalist Tamar Morad and Robert and Dennis Shasha, Iraqi Jewish businessmen in the United States. Published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2008, the book was recently released in Iraq in Arabic.

In Israel with Green, the project's media director David Langer told Haaretz that he has designed a particular look for the project, which included filming and photographing the subjects in black and white. “The project enables individuals to tell their stories and their parents’ and grandparents’ stories,"  Green says. "On a macro level, the goal of the project is, in a way, to retell the story of Jewish civilization so that it will include the richness of Sephardi Jews, too.”

The project is currently focusing on Iraqi Jews. “After a long and illustrious history in Iraq, including the formulation of the Talmud, most of the Iraqi Jewish community left Iraq in the early 1950s, with a few staying until the 1980s and beyond," Dennis Shasha said in an email. "The good and the bad stories of that last generation need to be told. That’s what we’re doing." Shasha, with his brother Robert Shasha, is funding the project.

The 1941 "Farhud" marked the beginning of the end of the millennia-old Jewish community in Iraq. This massive two-day pogrom in Baghdad, which started during the holiday of Shavuot, killed over 180 Jews and injured 1,000. Nine hundred Jewish homes were destroyed.

After the start of Israel’s War of Independence in 1947, the Iraqi government dismissed Jews from the civil service, imposed Jewish quotas at universities and other institutions and arrested increasing numbers of Jews. Bombings targeted synagogues, but Jews were allowed to emigrate only if they first relinquished all of their assets. In 1948, a respected Jewish businessman was publicly hanged on charges of selling weapons to Israel – even though he was an outspoken anti-Zionist. By 1951, a majority of Iraqi Jews – some 105,000 – had been airlifted out of Iraq and brought to Israel.

Some, like Menuhin’s family, stayed put. She was born in 1950 into the atmosphere of increasing tension and terror. She tells her story vivaciously, with ready laughter and self-mockery, but hers is a story of loss.

“After the Six-Day War, I really began to feel afraid,” she recalls. “The authorities called in the father of a friend of mine ‘for questioning’ – and brought his body back in a sack. We were living in terror. In 1969, nine innocent Jews, accused of spying for Israel, were publicly hanged in Baghdad. I remember seeing their bodies."

“I loved Baghdad, my community, the cosmopolitan atmosphere, the foods, the sounds, the sights. But I knew I couldn’t stay anymore,” she says.

By then, Jews could not legally leave Iraq. Against her parents’ wishes, Menuhin secretly escaped with her brother, guided by smugglers who first took them to Iran and eventually to Israel. Her mother left soon afterward and joined them there. But her father, a well-known Baghdad attorney, did not want a clandestine departure.

“As an attorney, my father believed in the law and would not leave illegally,” she says. On the eve of Yom Kippur in 1972, on his way to the synagogue, Menuhin’s father was taken into custody by the Iraqi authorities. He was never seen again.

Menuhin made her own documentary film, “Shadow in Baghdad,” about her search for her father. “We know nothing of what happened to him. We have never even said Kaddish,” she says, referring to the mourner's prayer.

In contrast to Menuhin, identical twins Herzl and Balfour Hakak were only 2 years old when they were brought to Israel with their families, and their stories focus on the difficulties of immigration.

They are interviewed for Sephardi Voices in Herzl's small Jerusalem apartment filled with heavy furniture and damask curtains, and located in an increasingly ultra-Orthodox neighborhood. Despite the heat, the brothers are dressed in an old-world style, in open-collar suits.

“When we came, we were told to shed our Iraqiness. The schoolbooks that we learned from mainly described the towns in Europe, the halutzim," Herzl says, referring to the pioneers. "There was no description of the Jews from the East. But we couldn’t shed our identity, even though we were so young when we arrived. Identity isn’t something you can just cut and paste.”

Both brothers grew up to be civil servants and both are published poets, writing mostly about life in Iraq and the challenges faced by their parents and grandparents, the first generation of immigrants. “Our grandfather’s and father’s generation couldn’t express themselves,” Herzl says. “But the generation of the grandchildren and children – that is, us – can, and we can write their pain.”

He chooses to read a poem he wrote about integration into Israeli society. He clearly knows the poem by heart, yet holds the volume in front of him, as if reading to the camera.

(...)
Green had hoped to interview Salim Fattal, known among members of the community as “the custodian of the memory of the Farhud.”

“Even though he was the director of Israel’s Arabic broadcasting service and created popular Israeli TV programs, the Farhud was the defining event of his life," says Morad, the journalist, who is coordinating the project in Israel as a volunteer.

But Fattal, 87, died in late May.

“The elderly Iraqi Jews are dying out, and their memories are fading. This is why this is project is so urgent," Green concludes.

Iraqi Jewish Voices, a part of the Sephardi Voices project, will officially launch in New York City in September.

Read article in full

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

How 1967 caused a mass Jewish exodus

The 50th anniversary of the Six Day War is also a time to remember that other war - the war that Arab regimes waged against their Jewish citizens. This Tablet piece by Lucette Lagnado gives an overview, but may be criticised for downplaying the antisemitism that bedevilled these countries before 1967. (With thanks: Eliyahu)

The choir at Eliyahu Hanavi synagogue, Alexandria
 
What wasn’t—what isn’t—forgivable, even looking back 50 years later, was how residents of those countries chose to vent their rage: By turning it against the Jews in their midst, most of who were studiously apolitical and had nothing to do with the war, its outbreak or its outcome.

Even in those countries that were, as some of us like to say, “nice to the Jews”—such as Tunisia, where fairly sizable Jewish communities were left in 1967—there were terrifying demonstrations and expressions of hatred and venom. Jews from Morocco left in exodus. In countries like Libya, murderous assaults took place that prompted an emergency evacuation of hundreds of Jews.
Egypt, where I was born and spent my early childhood, engaged in especially tawdry behavior. My family had left in 1963, following tens of thousands of other Jews out of the country. We did so reluctantly: My father didn’t want to go and it took pressure from my siblings to convince him. He simply couldn’t bear the thought of life outside of Egypt.

That was the case with a lot of Egyptian Jews. While they loved Israel too, they saw themselves as Egyptian. I can still hear Dad’s cries on the boat out of Alexandria harbor: “Ragaouna Masr”—Take Us Back to Cairo.

But our little boat kept chugging along.It wouldn’t turn back. It has taken me years to realize—sort of, as I still love Egypt passionately: Lucky us.
In 1967, there were an estimated 2,500-3,000 Jews still left between Cairo and Alexandria, down from a high of 80,000 in 1948.

On that week in ’67, the Egyptian government began rounding up Jewish men, to send to jails and prison camps. By accounts of the time, as many as 400 or 500 Jews were imprisoned.

While they gallantly left girls and women alone, authorities picked up Jewish men young and old. Even the Chief Rabbi of Alexandria was arrested. Enraged about their failure to defeat the Jewish state, the Egyptians turned their wrath on Jews whose crime, as far as I can tell, was that they were living in Egypt.
Nor did the aftermath of the war lead to the prisoners’ swift release. It is true some were in jail a mere couple of weeks until some foreign embassies helped get them out. But others lingered for months, even years, as Egypt released Jewish prisoners in painful dribs and drabs.

Albert Gabbai, rabbi of the venerable Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, was 18 and still in school in Cairo that June. He and his three older brothers and two sisters lived with their widowed mother. Their father, once a shirt-maker to King Farouk, had died years earlier and the brothers managed his clothing business along with their mom. Four other brothers had made it to America and the plan, he recalled, was to join them.

Rabbi Gabbai still remembers how the authorities first dragged his two older brothers to prison that week in June. Then some weeks later they came for him and another brother. They carried machine guns, yet were exquisitely polite, he recalls, inviting him to come with them as if they were going out for coffee. The four Gabbai brothers remained prisoners for three years, till June 1970.
There were other Jewish victims across the Middle East. While in Tunis researching a book on Jews of the Arab lands, I met with elderly Jews who vividly remembered that week in ’67, when a country that had treated them exceedingly well became simply unrecognizable.

They recalled how mobs took to the streets, targeting Jewish shops for destruction. They attacked the magnificent Grande Synagogue, whose enormous towering Jewish star was a testament to how tolerant Tunisian culture once had been.

The marauders turned their wrath on, of all places, the Kosher butcher shops on the Avenue de Paris, attacking them with odd ferocity and dragging carcasses of meat from the stores to the sidewalks. It was, I was told, a particularly gruesome sight.

Many Tunisian Jews left then and there, abandoning all they owned—homes, furniture, clothing. The expression I heard was “la clef dans la verouille“—they had left their key in the lock.

And Libya—yes, even Libya once had an important Jewish presence—was especially brutal to its Jews that week, who tried to barricade themselves in their homes to avoid the angry mobs.  “Jewish stores, homes, synagogues were burned and destroyed.  People were violated and killed,” and two families were murdered (except for one survivor who wasn’t there), said Vivienne Roumani, a Libyan Jew who made the 2007 film, The Last Jews of Libya. Later that month many of the Libyan Jews were evacuated to Italy.  It was no longer possible for them to remain safe in Libya.

And that is how a Jewish presence that dated back 2,500 years, effectively ended, says Roumani, a native of Benghazi who left Libya in 1962.

Perhaps that is why, whenever a supporter of the BDS movement targeting Israel insists they are “only” anti-Israel not anti-Jewish, I cast a cold eye, recalling how bogus that distinction turned out to be for Jews of Arab countries. It is as false now as it was 50 years back.

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Monday, June 12, 2017

How a Jew from Egypt made his own luck

Sixty years ago this year, following the November 1956 Suez crisis, the Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser unleashed a campaign of persecution against his country's Jewish citizens. Within a year, 25,000 Jews - almost half the remaining community - had left Egypt. Jacques Sardas was among them. Book review by Lyn Julius of Without Return in the Clash of Cultures Jerusalem Post blog.


Jacques Sardas' birthplace Alexandria as it looks today

Now in his eighties and living in the American south after a successful career at Goodyear, the tyre maker, he was persuaded by his grandchildren to set down his compelling stories in book form.

Many Jews from Egypt - the best known include Andre Aciman and Lucette Lagnado - have published their memoirs in recent years, but 'Without Return' is an autobiography with a difference. The Egyptian Jewish community is renowned for its bourgeois affluence and sophistication.  But Jacques Sardas's family of Greek-speaking Jews stands out for being poor. As a child, he remembers the rudimentary conditions in which his family lived in Alexandria: the four children sharing a room, the washing facilities a drain in the corner of the kitchen. His father, an itinerant fabric salesman,  has no regular  income. Often the children do not have enough to eat.  His long-suffering mother sews long into the night to repair her family 's clothing. The children attend schools founded by the rich for the benefit of the Jewish poor.

Jacques' mercurial father is less well-educated than his wife but in cosmopolitan Egypt still manages to speak 10 languages. He is prone to Levantine fits of temper, cursing his wife's family for their financial woes. He is also comically superstitious, planting cloves of garlic under the children's mattresses and spitting on priests' cassocks in the street because their contact with the dying is thought to bring bad luck. Nevertheless, the pre-WW2 atmosphere is carefree and the neighbourhood's children have fun together.

When Jacques is barely 10, tragedy strikes - his mother dies suddenly. His father re-marries and the family move to Cairo.

In Egypt's ethnic salad of Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Maltese, Italians, Syrians and Arabs, the antisemitism comes mainly from Christians - at one stage, the family are harassed by malevolent Syrian orthodox neighbours - but the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood impacts on them too.  Jews are beaten up in the streets by Muslim Brotherhood gangs as Zionists. They must use their streetwise guile to survive, and Jacques has it in spades.

Jacques 's spirit and energy come over in the book but he modesty attributes his ability to survive tricky situations to a 'lucky' birthmark which he rubs like Aladdin's lamp. A keen sportsman, he leads a pupils' strike at his Cairo school until the staff agree to setting up a schools basketball team. He punches his way out of a Muslim Brotherhood ambush. (So impressive is he that he earns the respect of the gang leader.) He dreams of becoming a doctor: "I wanted to break the mould and be the first in the family to get to a higher caste. ' But money worries force him to go out to work as a clerk in Jewish-owned retail businesses and, haunted by memories of deprivation, he almost breaks up with his girlfriend Etty.

When Jews withdraw large sums of money in readiness for their post-Suez exodus, gangs lie in wait to rob them. But Jacques manages to outfox them. He and Etty, bound for a new life in  Brazil, must bid goodbye to Egypt. Even though he has a Greek passport, his exit visa bears the words 'No return' - testimony to the Nasser regime's flagrant antisemitism. It rankles with Jacques that he will never be allowed back to the country of his birth.

Compellingly and charmingly written, Without Return is a testament to Jacques' resourcefulness and determination to survive against all odds. And not just survive, but make the best of life.

'Without Return: Memoirs of an Egyptian Jew 1930 - 1957' by Jacques Sardas (Thebes Press 2017, paperback $17.95)

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Sunday, June 11, 2017

Why Ashkenazim are still 'people of colour'

 Dani Ishai Behan has long beeen arguing against the common assumption that Jews are a 'white' people. In this article for the Times of Israel, he challenges a Tweeter called S I Rosenbaum, who asserts that Jews may not be 'white', but they are not 'persons of colour' either.

Back to Rosenbaum, she goes on to assert that Ashkenazim enjoy all of the “regular privileges” white people do, which is false. She is conflating the ability to pass (a common trait for certain POC groups, especially other Middle Easterners – Jews aren’t “special” here) with actually being white, despite her earlier concession that they’re not the same thing. Yet for unclear and contradictory reasons (beyond inane, unsupported platitudes like “antisemitism is not racism”), she insists on holding Jews to a very different set of standards.
Some of the faces which Dani Ishai Behan has collected for his gallery of 'white' Ashkenazi Jews
 Granted, some Ashkenazim – as well as some non-Ashkenazim – do have ambiguous or ostensibly “white” facial features, which are mainly the result of Cossack rapes during pogroms, and can therefore camouflage themselves, but a very large number cannot. As can be seen in the link I just posted, many either have a “Jewish” appearance, or a full blown Middle Eastern one. Moreover, having to hide one’s ethnic background just to be treated as a “normal” human being is not privilege, because white people (*actual* white people, not Jews, Arabs, etc) don’t have to do this. They don’t need to change their names, or flatten their noses, or bleach their skin, or straighten their hair, or take their kippahs off, etc. The fact that Ashkenazim, and white passing Jews in general, need to *work* just to be seen as regular people really says it all, and many (if not most) don’t even have the ability to do that. It’s simply not comparable.

More to the point, Jews are perhaps the oldest victims of what has come to be known as Orientalism. From the Greek and Roman colonial era where we were deemed “savages” in need of culture and enlightenment, to the evolution of these views under Christianity, to Enlightenment era Europeans openly declaring that we are Asiatics who are therefore culturally stagnant and incapable of reason, science, or progress, Orientalism has always been the bedrock of European antisemitism. These beliefs, rather than disappearing, have simply undergone further mutation in accordance with the West’s changing cultural milieus, and the classic European Orientalist perception of Jews as backwards, static, irrational, etc continues to inform antisemitism to this day. For more on that, see here.

All in all, we mustn’t make the mistake of assuming Jews enjoy “white privilege” just because our experiences are not symmetrical with those of African-Americans or Hispanics, as to do so would be unreasonable, fallacious, and hypocritical (again, no other ethnic minority is held to this standard). Anti-Jewish racism looks different because the stereotypes are different. In other words, we are not viewed by society as “uneducated thugs”, but as “dishonest”, “conniving”, “clannish”, and “bloodthirsty” mongrels who control everything behind the scenes, and these racist tropes play out in the way we are treated in this country. Moreover, we are frequently profiled at airports, viewed with suspicion when we are too successful, assumed to be in control of the US government, assaulted on the streets, typecast on TV and in movies (barring a number of exceptions) as geeks, criminals, hypochondriacs, and other stereotypes, our scalps are molested for horns by strangers, and so on and so forth.

Inasmuch as a group’s non-whiteness is contingent on their history, experiences, heritage, and relationship with the concept of “white” as defined by its pioneers, Ashkenazim certainly do qualify as a non-white people. Rosenbaum argues that whiteness vs non-whiteness is contingent on history and heritage, but despite Jews meeting every single qualifier to be considered a people of color, every single criterion down the line, she refuses to accept that we are one. Her claims that we are not a single, cohesive people of collective Middle Eastern stock is simply incorrect.

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Saturday, June 10, 2017

Libya's forgotten war against its Jews

 In June 1967, while mobs raged against Jews in the streets of Tripoli and Benghazi, a young girl was sheltered by a brave Muslim until it was safe enough for her family to leave the country. That girl was to become Mrs David Harris, the author of this Algemeiner article highlighting the forgotten consequences in Libya of Israel's Six Day War victory.  (With thanks: Imre)

 Shell of the Zawiya synagogue, burnt down in the 1945 pogrom

Notwithstanding constitutional guarantees provided by the new Libyan nation, restrictions on Jews were gradually imposed. By 1961, Jews could not vote, hold public office, serve in the army, get passports, purchase new property, acquire majority ownership in any new business or supervise their own communal affairs. Yet the Jews remained, umbilically linked to their ancestral land and hoping against hope, despite all the evidence to the contrary, for positive change.
Then, in June 1967, war broke out in the Middle East. Inspired by Nasser’s pan-Arab appeals, Libyans took to the streets and attacked the Jewish community.
By the time calm was restored, 18 Jews in Tripoli, the country’s capital, were dead. The toll might have risen had it not been for the courage of Cesare Pasquinelli, Italy’s ambassador to Libya, who ordered all Italian diplomatic missions in the country to extend their protection to the Jews.
A very few Muslims helped as well, including one — who at great risk — hid the teenager who was to become my wife, along with her parents and seven siblings, for two weeks until they were able to leave the country. Tellingly, however, this righteous Libyan has refused any public recognition, lest his life be put in danger for saving Jews.
Within a matter of weeks, all the remaining Jews of Libya fled abroad, urged to do so “temporarily” by the government. Each was permitted one suitcase and the equivalent of $50. Half headed for Israel; 2,000 went to Italy. In many respects, the tragic fate of Libya’s Jews was no different from that of hundreds of thousands of Jews in other Arab countries.
To no one’s surprise, this temporary exodus became permanent. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi seized power in 1969; the following year, he announced a series of laws to confiscate the assets of Libya’s Jews, issuing bonds providing for “fair compensation” within 15 years. But 1985 came and went with no compensation paid.
And so, with only a few scattered international protests, scant press attention and silence from the United Nations, another once-thriving Jewish community in the Arab world, like so many others, came to an end — and the rich tapestry of the region’s diversity took yet another irretrievable hit.

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Friday, June 09, 2017

The Jews who paid the price for Israel's victory

 While the media focus on the events leading to Israel’s lightening Six Day War victory, the impact on the few thousand Jews remaining in Arab countries is forgotten. Lyn Julius writes in the Jewish News:

‘They had everything in their hands; fire, axes, knives, swords... They were banging, trying to break the doors and they set the curtains on fire.’ Doris Keren-Gill, a Jew from Libya, well remembers the dark days of June 1967 when rioters destroyed her home and nearby synagogue. Doris escaped with her life. Today not a single Jew is left in Libya.



While the media focus on the events leading to Israel’s lightening Six Day War victory, the impact on the few thousand Jews remaining in Arab countries is forgotten. In 1967 all these communities were shadows of their former selves, 90 percent of their Jews having already fled: some 76,000 Jews remained out of a 1948 population of 900,000. Almost all had been deprived of civil rights but could still quietly pursue their education, run businesses and enjoy a social life. But the vindictive Arab reaction to Israel’s victory changed all that.

 In Syria and Iraq Jews were kept as hostages; Jews poured out of Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Jews in Libya, taunted by enraged mobs, and Aden, where
 Jewish property was set on fire, were evacuated for their own safety. In almost all Arab countries there were demonstrations and anti-Jewish riots. Some governments actively persecuted their Jews as if they were Israelis.

Already Jews in Iraq had to carry yellow identity cards and were unable to leave. But Arab rage led to property seizures, beatings and arrests. Jews were sacked, telephones were cut off. On 27 January 1969, nine Jewish ‘spies’ were executed and their bodies strung up in Baghdad’s Liberation Square. A million Iraqis came to celebrate. The arrests continued until 1972: some 50 Jews disappeared. Not permitted to leave, almost 2,000 Jews escaped Iraq with the help of Kurdish smugglers, leaving their homes and possessions behind.

 Jewish migration from Lebanon, which accelerated in 1964, reached epidemic levels after the 1967 war due to fears of impending riots. The mass exodus was followed by the abduction and murder of individual Jews.

Some of the fiercest riots broke out in Tunisia on 5 June 1967. The Great Synagogue in Tunis was set on fire. Panicking Jews abandoned their homes. Within five years, only about 7,000 remained.

In Morocco, a massive security deployment prevented loss of life during mass demonstrations. When the propaganda of an Arab victory turned out to be false, two Jews were murdered. An economic boycott against Jewish businesses was declared. Some 10,000 Jews left, mostly to France and North America.

 In Syria, curfews were imposed. Jews were housebound hostages, deprived of telephones and radios. Some 2,300 Jews were smuggled into Israel from Syria, but it would be another 25 years before the rest would be allowed to emigrate.

In the Libyan pogroms, more than 100 shops were destroyed and 18 Jews were killed. The Libyan exodus left fewer than 100 Jews behind. In 1969, Colonel Qaddafi ordered all Jewish property confiscated and debts to Jews cancelled.

 In Egypt, the authorities arrested 400 Jewish males up to the age of 60 as ‘Israeli PoWs’. They were interned for up to three years. The prisoners were abused and fed dirty bread containing cigarette butts and nails. The Rabbi of Alexandria was tied to the prison bars and beaten senseless.

 The Six Day War thus marked the irrevocable and silent demise, within a few years, of Jewish communities which had pre-dated Islam by 1,000 years. Although they played no part in Israel’s victory and despite representations by Jewish groups and foreign governments, Jews in Arab countries paid a terrible price. Pursuing revenge, Arab regimes committed serious human rights abuses. They have never been held to account.

********
Letter with the same message published in the Jewish Chronicle (10 June 2017):

Congratulations on your Six Day War supplement. Allow me to point out,
however, that your coverage omits one significant aspect: the War's
catastrophic impact on the remaining Jewish communities in Arab countries.
Popular anger at the humiliating Arab defeat by Israel was turned
against local Jews. There were mass demonstrations in almost all Arab
countries as Jewish citizens were taken for Israelis.
Jews were arrested in Morocco on fabricated charges. In Tunisia, a mob
set fire to Jewish businesses and to the great synagogue in Tunisia. In
Aden, where Jewish property was set on fire, and in Libya, where 18
Jews were killed, violent riots caused the remnant Jewish communities to
be evacuated for their own safety.
In Egypt, 400 male Jews were imprisoned as 'Israeli PoWs'. Some were
tortured and abused for up to three years.
In Iraq, the government launched a witch-hunt accusing Jews of being
Zionist spies. Show trials culminated in the execution of nine Jews on
27 January 1969 and the disappearance of dozens of others. Half a
million Iraqis came to celebrate the hangings in Baghdad's main square.
A travel ban resulted in 2,000 desperate Jews smuggling themselves
through northern Iraq with the help of Kurds.
In Syria, the few thousand oppressed Jews were held as hostages until
they were permitted to leave in the 1990s.
All in all, The Six Day War ushered in a period of unprecedented
repression and terror and hastened the demise of ancient, pre-Islamic
communities. In Morocco and Tunisia numbers have drastically diminished.
Elsewhere in the Arab world, Jews are today either extinct, or can be
counted on the fingers of one or two hands.

Mrs Lyn Julius
Harif - UK Association of Jews from the Middle East and North Africa

Thursday, June 08, 2017

How the Jews of Aden were rescued in 1967

The 50th anniversary of the Six Day War is being commemorated with articles and TV programmes. But the impact on the remaining Jewish communities of the furious Arab reaction to their defeat has been almost completely forgotten. Take for instance, the rescue from murderous riots of the last Jews of Aden, a British colony at the tip of the Arabian peninsula. Lyn Julius of Harif reports on a recent talk in London:



Top: some of the audience at Nigel Grizzard's well-attended talk on 5 June. Below, from left: Simon Tobi of the Aden Jews' Congregation, Michelle Huberman of Harif, speaker Nigel Grizzard and Lyn Julius of Harif 

Researcher Nigel Grizzard gave a talk under the auspices of Harif and the Aden Jewish Community Centre in Stamford Hill, London on 5 June on the evacuation by British troops of 140 Jews to Britain.  They owe their survival to two unsung heroes: Abraham Marks, the headmaster of the Selim Jewish school, who personally went from house to house in order to assemble Jews for evacuation; and Lord Barnett Janner, who secured British passports for the evacuees.

Known as the Paris of the East, Aden was a thriving port whose 8,000 Jews had settled there not just from neighbouring Yemen, but India and the Ottoman empire.  There were disturbances in  the 1930s to ruffle their comfortable and prosperous lives, but the 1947 riots were the turning point, resulting in the exodus of all but a few hundred Jews. Muslim levies, armed and officered by the British, shot and killed 82 (some estimate 87) Jews. Shops were looted, much property was destroyed and the Jewish boys' school in the Jewish quarter of Crater burnt down. Subsequent official British inquiries into these events whitewashed the role of the levies - only nine were imprisoned - and even tried to blame 'Jewish snipers' for some of the deaths.

The evacuation by the Royal Lancashire Regiment of the last Jewish residents in 1967 was in marked contrast to Britain's failure to protect the Jewish community in 1947. As President Nasser whipped up anti-Jewish feeling in the run-up to the Six Day War, there were several attempts to set fire to Jewish shops and houses. At the outbreak of the war in June 1967,  it became clear that lives were in danger: seventy Jews were moved to the Jewish-owned Victoria hotel. Thanks to the good offices of Barnett Janner, the entire community was flown out via Tehran. Twenty Jews got off the 'plane in Israel; the rest journeyed on to the UK.

Matters deteriorated after the Jews left and 22 British soldiers were killed on a single day in June by Arab mutineers. Britain finally withdrew from its last outpost of empire on 30 November 1967 after ruling Aden for 128 years.

Joseph Howard, an Adenite Jew who organised the 25th anniversary commemoration of the 1967 evacuation, says of Abraham Marks: 'he saved our lives.' As a child in 1947 he remembers being tipped off by an Arab and told not to go to school on the day that the riots broke out. Tens of houses were burnt down. 'There were not riots, but murder,' he says. Among the dead was the brother of Professor Reuven Ahroni, the author of one of the few books about the Jewish community in Aden.

Addressing the audience of 120 packing the Aden community centre, Nigel Grizzard urged members to write a pamphlet detailing their recent history before all memory of it is lost.

Cross-posted at Times of Israel

Wednesday, June 07, 2017

Coexistence in the Middle East one of the greatest lies

Seeing a newspaper clipping from the era of the Six Day War showing the dumping of rubbish and human waste next to the Western wall in recaptured Jerusalem prompted Seth Frantzman to reflect that there never was co-existence with Jews in most of the Middle East (or Europe). If they accepted second class status, minorities were allowed to exist, not co-exist.

 Prior to 1967 part of the western wall was used as a toilet by local Arab residents of Jerusalem's Old City. One wonders, since we hear from groups that the Wall is also an Islamic holy site called "al-Buraq" why would one build a toilet at it?

We always hear these stories about "coexistence" in Ottoman Palestine before the arrival of Zionists in the 19th century.

But what was this coexistence? Toilets next to holy sites, purposely placed there because the residents knew it was holy to someone else. Let's see, also slaughterhouses and other stench next to the Jewish quarter. Part of the "coexistence" of putting latrines and animal blood next to the religion you "coexist" with? 

After 1948 what was done with Jewish grave stones on the Mount of Olives under Jordanian administration? They were used to pave the walkways to toilets for soldiers. A continuation of the concept of literally crapping on the holy things of others.

The reality of "coexistence" in the Middle East is that there was no real coexistence in most places. There was second and third class status for minorities, whichever those minorities happened to be. If they accepted that status then they were allowed to "exist" not truly coexistence, except on rare occasions.

That means when you "coexist" with people you constantly harass them through dominance; you build religious buildings purposely next to the holy sites of others, or you dump trash and animal parts and human waste next to the houses of worship and holy sites of others.

Even today for instance in the village of Artas in the West Bank the residents just "happen" to dump trash at the entrance to a Catholic Monastery. Surely it's a coincidence.

There never was coexistence in most of the Middle East or Europe. It is one of the greatest lies. There was sometimes mutual existence; side by side, even times when minorities did well; but never was there truly any sense of equality and real respect and deference to others.

Today of course we can see the region suffering under even greater intolerance precisely because of the past low level symbolic intolerance.

Tuesday, June 06, 2017

King of Morocco stays away from African summit

The King of Morocco did not attend the 51st Summit of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on 2 - 4 June in protest at the presence of Israel's prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu. However, Morocco, which is pushing to become a full member of the body, only has observer status. In spite of reports (such as this Middle East Monitor item) that African states had downgraded their representation at the summit, 12 out of 15 heads of states attended.

 King of Morocco Mohammed V

The Moroccan Foreign Ministry yesterday stated that King Mohammed VI has cancelled his attendance of the 51st Summit of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) because Israeli Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, has also been invited.

In a statement the ministry said King Mohammed VI had planned to visit the Liberian capital, Monrovia, on 3-4 June to attend the 51st ECOWAS Summit, which was expected to examine Morocco’s request to join the regional group as a full member.

The statement added that, “During this Royal visit, a meeting with the President of Liberia, talks with ECOWAS Heads of State and a speech at the Summit were all scheduled.”

However, over the last few days, major ECOWAS member states have decided to reduce their level of representation at the summit, to the bare minimum, due to their disagreement with the invitation handed to the Israeli prime minister. The statement also noted that other member states also expressed their astonishment at this invitation.

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Monday, June 05, 2017

'Greedy' killer of Jewish couple sentenced to death

A Moroccan court has sentenced the murderer of Vicky Chetrit and Sam Toledano to death, but claims that he was motivated by greed, not hate, despite dismembering their bodies and dispersing them throughout Casablanca. Report in the Times of Israel:


A court in Morocco sentenced to death a gardener who was convicted of murdering a Jewish couple last year in Casablanca.

The Court of First Instance of the coastal city sentenced Mustapha Rerhay, 51, to death on Monday, the Le 360 news site reported, for the killing of Sam Toledano and Vicky Chetrit, a high-profile couple in the Jewish community for whom the killer had worked. 

Rerhay dismembered the couple’s bodies and disposed of the parts in various places in Casablanca. He stole jewelry and other possessions from their home in an attack police insisted was financially motivated, not a hate crime.

But the news site Diaspora Saharaui, which is critical of the government of Morocco over its occupation of Western Sahara, suggested in its reporting that the police version does not explain the mutilation of the bodies.

“Moroccan authorities tried to present the crime as motivated by greed, but a simple thief would not have mutilated the bodies and dispersed their parts across the city,” the report said, citing the rarity of cases involving mutilation in Morocco.

Noting the couple’s high profile within the Jewish community, the news site urged Moroccan police to examine alternative motives for the crimes.
Rerhay was arrested soon after the July 2016 murders, and reportedly confessed to the crime, which he said he committed due to financial hardship. He was said to have been facing eviction from his apartment when he hatched a plan to kill the couple and steal their money and jewelry.

Sunday, June 04, 2017

Nazi radio incitement helped cause Farhud massacre

 As we mark the 76th anniversary of the Farhud massacre of hundreds of Jews in Iraq, Edy Cohen writes a BESA Centre Paper arguing that one of the causes was the continuous propaganda broadcast by the first Nazi Arab-language radio station to win Arab and Muslim hearts and minds. Such incitement is sustained today, he claims, by the Palestinian heirs of the Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini, one of the main instigators of the Farhud. (With thanks: Melvyn, Imre)

This propaganda mill employed many teams of both civilian and military personnel, including writers, translators, academics, and Middle East experts. Among others, the broadcasts featured Arab immigrants and leaders. The mythic broadcaster and director of the Arabic station was the journalist Yunus Bahri (left), who reached Berlin after fleeing his native Iraq, where he had been sentenced to death for pro-Nazi activity. He was recruited by Grobba and opened his broadcasts with his famous line, “The Arab Lord Haw-Haw, this is Berlin, greetings to the Arabs.”

Known for his virulent anti-Semitism, Bahri stated proudly in a memoir he wrote after the war, “I was the first Arab to collaborate with the Nazis.” His hatred towards Jews was so intense that he was summoned for a reprimand in Propaganda Minister Goebbels’s office because of his excessively vitriolic attacks on Jews and especially his constant use of the term “Jewish criminals.”
Four days before the Farhoud, Bahri stated on Radio Berlin:
Judaism, which is compounded of Zionism and Freemasonry, has created a fortress in England behind which it carries out its crimes. The Arabs fought the Jews and expelled them from the Arabian Peninsula 1,400 years ago. The Prophet Muhammad was the first to expel them. In our time, the Arabs witness what the Jews have done under English sponsorship. The Jews have declared that they want to establish a national home in Palestine which is an inseparable part of the Arab homeland. The Arabs of Iraq now see what the Jews of Basra are capable of doing under English directives. The Arabs take note of the declarations of the English statesmen, particularly the latest two by Churchill and Smuts. Smuts said that he and England owe thanks to the Jews for their help in the war. These words have hardened the Jews’ determination to fight the Arabs, in the certainty that after the war they would be allowed to establish the Hebrew state…. The Jews are an abomination everywhere. And recall the verse in the Koran: “The greatest enemies of humanity are those who trust the Jews.”
In broadcasts after the pogrom, Bahri justified the massacre and accused the Iraqi Jews of obtaining and disseminating propaganda material from the British embassy in Baghdad. He also charged them with providing the British embassy with military information about the Iraqi army. With such malicious fabrications he lent legitimacy to the Farhoud massacre.

Bahri was too self-laudatory about being the first Arab to collaborate with the Nazis. The Mufti had beaten him to it long before. Within weeks of Hitler’s rise to power, he rushed to the German consul in Jerusalem to assure him that “the Muslims in Palestine and elsewhere were enthusiastic about the new regime in Germany and looked forward to the spread of fascism throughout the region.”
Hajj Amin had been deeply implicated in the widespread massacre of Jews in Mandatory Palestine – from the April 1920 Jerusalem pogrom, for which he was sentenced to 10 years in prison by a British military court but managed to flee the country, to the 1929 riots in which 133 Jews were murdered and hundreds injured, to the 1936-39 “revolt” in which hundreds of Jews were murdered. Against this backdrop, it was only natural for him to play a central role in the Farhoud, both in inciting the local Iraqi population against their Jewish compatriots and through his close involvement with the Rashid Ali regime.
It comes as no surprise, then, that in his memoirs the mufti blamed the Iraqi Jews for the failure of the pro-Nazi “revolution” (which in turn forced him to flee to Tehran, whence he came to Berlin where he spent the rest of the war years), thus implicitly justifying the Farhoud. As he wrote:
The fifth column played a large role in the failure that the movement [the Rashid Ali regime] suffered in Iraq. This column consisted of different elements, of which the main one was Iraqi Jewry…. During the war, Jews who were employed in the telephone service would record the important and official conversations on reels and pass them to the British embassy in Baghdad. The Jews in the postal and telegraphic authority did the same. They hurriedly sent the embassy the telegrams and letters that reached them.
 The Palestinian Mufti: his heirs have learned nothing and forgotten nothing

Regrettably, seventy-six years after the Farhoud, it appears that the mufti’s heirs to the Palestinian leadership have learned nothing and forgotten nothing. When Mahmoud Abbas stood beside President Trump on the White House lawn and declared to one and all that the Palestinians educate their children for peaceful coexistence with Israel, not a muscle twitched in his face. In fact, during its 20-year-long control of the Palestinian population of the West Bank and Gaza as part of the Oslo “peace” process, Abbas’s Palestinian Authority, not to mention Hamas, has subjected its subjects to a relentless hate campaign of racial and political incitement unparalleled in scope and intensity since Nazi Germany. That campaign not only delegitimizes the idea of Jewish statehood but also propagates the murder of Jews simply for being Jews. And if history teaches us anything, it is that the translation of such words into action is all too easy.

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